P21 “There are three basic flavours of incentives: economic, social, and moral.”
P44. Paul Feldman’s bagel business: insights to white-collar crime and the nature/ honesty of people.
P58. Stetson Kennedy and his crusade against the Ku Klux Klan; using the Superman radio show to trivialise and mock the secrecy and myth of the KKK. The case of information being power.
P120 – 144. Analyses the probable reasons for decrease in US crime rates: Innovative policing strategies (no), increase reliance on prisons (no), lower profits in crack/ cocaine market (yes), Ageing population (no), tougher gun control laws (no), strong economy (no), increase in number of police (yes), capital punishment (no). Adds that legalized abortion — or rather the choice for poor/ disadvantage/ women or those reluctant to have a child– is the biggest contributor to crime decrease.
P123. Citing the difference between correlation and causality. I.e. Just because data suggests a correlation does not mean one is the cause for another.
P126. Causality can be shown by using test cases (random sampling, or controlled tests)
P139. Legalized abortion led to less unwanted children; unwanted children tends to adopt life of crime.
147. On parenting; swimming pools and guns. That data show far higher chance of a child drowning in swimming pools than being killed by guns (present in the homes). and why parents think the latter is a higher danger.
P152. Cites Peter Sandman, a “self-described ‘risk communications consultant”. His equation for defining risk: Risk = Hazard + Outrage. Hazard high; Outrage low = People under-react. Hazard low; Outrage high = People over-react.
P154. says long line of research shows genes account for at least 50% of personality and abilities.
P174. Strong correlation with school test scores: Highly educated parents, child’s parents have high socioeconomic status, mother was 30 or older at the time of the first child, child has low birth rate (negative correlation), parents speak English at home, child is adopted, parents are highly involved in PTA, child has many books at home. But authors caution against drawing causality. E.g. The presence of books at home doesn’t automatically lead to better scores. Probably related to the higher educated parents propensity to read.
Factors with weak correlations: family is intact, moving to better neighbourhood, non-working mothers up to kindergarten age, attending Head Start (preschool for poorer kids), regular outings to museums, child is regularly spanked, frequent watching of TV, parents reading to child nearly everyday.
P176. Suggests genetics are a major contributor of school performance, but parental influence (presence of books at home etc) also plays a part.